抢购、秒杀是平常很常见的场景,面试的时候面试官也经常会问到,比如问你淘宝中的抢购秒杀是怎么实现的等等。

抢购、秒杀实现很简单,但是有些问题需要解决,主要针对两个问题:

1 高并发对数据库产生的压力

2 竞争状态下如何解决库存的正确减少("超卖"问题)

第一个问题,对于PHP来说很简单,用缓存技术就可以缓解数据库压力,比如memcache,redis等缓存技术。

第二个问题就比较复杂点:

常规写法:

查询出对应商品的库存,看是否大于0,然后执行生成订单等操作,但是在判断库存是否大于0处,如果在高并发下就会有问题,导致库存量出现负数

<?php $conn=mysql_connect("localhost","big","123456"); if(!$conn){ echo "connect failed"; exit; } mysql_select_db("big",$conn); mysql_query("set names utf8"); $price=10; $user_id=1; $goods_id=1; $sku_id=11; $number=1; //生成唯一订单 function build_order_no(){ return date('ymd').substr(implode(NULL, array_map('ord', str_split(substr(uniqid(), 7, 13), 1))), 0, 8); } //记录日志 function insertLog($event,$type=0){ global $conn; $sql="insert into ih_log(event,type) values('$event','$type')"; mysql_query($sql,$conn); } //模拟下单操作 //库存是否大于0 $sql="select number from ih_store where goods_id='$goods_id' and sku_id='$sku_id'"; //解锁 此时ih_store数据中goods_id='$goods_id' and sku_id='$sku_id' 的数据被锁住(注3),其它事务必须等待此次事务 提交后才能执行 $rs=mysql_query($sql,$conn); $row=mysql_fetch_assoc($rs); if($row['number']>0){//高并发下会导致超卖 $order_sn=build_order_no(); //生成订单 $sql="insert into ih_order(order_sn,user_id,goods_id,sku_id,price) values('$order_sn','$user_id','$goods_id','$sku_id','$price')"; $order_rs=mysql_query($sql,$conn); //库存减少 $sql="update ih_store set number=number-{$number} where sku_id='$sku_id'"; $store_rs=mysql_query($sql,$conn); if(mysql_affected_rows()){ insertLog('库存减少成功'); }else{ insertLog('库存减少失败'); } }else{ insertLog('库存不够'); }

出现这种情况怎么办呢?来看几种优化方法:

优化方案1:将库存字段number字段设为unsigned,当库存为0时,因为字段不能为负数,将会返回false

1 //库存减少 2 $sql="update ih_store set number=number-{$number} where sku_id='$sku_id' and number>0"; 3 $store_rs=mysql_query($sql,$conn); 4 if(mysql_affected_rows()){ 5 insertLog('库存减少成功');6 }

优化方案2:使用MySQL的事务,锁住操作的行


<?php $conn=mysql_connect("localhost","big","123456"); if(!$conn){ echo "connect failed"; exit; } mysql_select_db("big",$conn); mysql_query("set names utf8"); $price=10; $user_id=1; $goods_id=1; $sku_id=11; $number=1; //生成唯一订单号 function build_order_no(){ return date('ymd').substr(implode(NULL, array_map('ord', str_split(substr(uniqid(), 7, 13), 1))), 0, 8); } //记录日志 function insertLog($event,$type=0){ global $conn; $sql="insert into ih_log(event,type) values('$event','$type')"; mysql_query($sql,$conn); } //模拟下单操作 //库存是否大于0 mysql_query("BEGIN"); //开始事务 $sql="select number from ih_store where goods_id='$goods_id' and sku_id='$sku_id' FOR UPDATE";//此时这条记录被锁住,其它事务必须等待此次事务提交后才能执行 $rs=mysql_query($sql,$conn); $row=mysql_fetch_assoc($rs); if($row['number']>0){ //生成订单 $order_sn=build_order_no(); $sql="insert into ih_order(order_sn,user_id,goods_id,sku_id,price) values('$order_sn','$user_id','$goods_id','$sku_id','$price')"; $order_rs=mysql_query($sql,$conn); //库存减少 $sql="update ih_store set number=number-{$number} where sku_id='$sku_id'"; $store_rs=mysql_query($sql,$conn); if(mysql_affected_rows()){ insertLog('库存减少成功'); mysql_query("COMMIT");//事务提交即解锁 }else{ insertLog('库存减少失败'); } }else{ insertLog('库存不够'); mysql_query("ROLLBACK"); }

优化方案3:使用非阻塞的文件排他锁


<?php $conn=mysql_connect("localhost","root","123456"); if(!$conn){ echo "connect failed"; exit; } mysql_select_db("big-bak",$conn); mysql_query("set names utf8"); $price=10; $user_id=1; $goods_id=1; $sku_id=11; $number=1; //生成唯一订单号 function build_order_no(){ return date('ymd').substr(implode(NULL, array_map('ord', str_split(substr(uniqid(), 7, 13), 1))), 0, 8); } //记录日志 function insertLog($event,$type=0){ global $conn; $sql="insert into ih_log(event,type) values('$event','$type')"; mysql_query($sql,$conn); } $fp = fopen("lock.txt", "w+"); if(!flock($fp,LOCK_EX | LOCK_NB)){ echo "系统繁忙,请稍后再试"; return; } //下单 $sql="select number from ih_store where goods_id='$goods_id' and sku_id='$sku_id'"; $rs=mysql_query($sql,$conn); $row=mysql_fetch_assoc($rs); if($row['number']>0){//库存是否大于0 //模拟下单操作 $order_sn=build_order_no(); $sql="insert into ih_order(order_sn,user_id,goods_id,sku_id,price) values('$order_sn','$user_id','$goods_id','$sku_id','$price')"; $order_rs=mysql_query($sql,$conn); //库存减少 $sql="update ih_store set number=number-{$number} where sku_id='$sku_id'"; $store_rs=mysql_query($sql,$conn); if(mysql_affected_rows()){ insertLog('库存减少成功'); flock($fp,LOCK_UN);//释放锁 }else{ insertLog('库存减少失败'); } }else{ insertLog('库存不够'); } fclose($fp);

优化方案4:使用redis队列,因为pop操作是原子的,即使有很多用户同时到达,也是依次执行,推荐使用(mysql事务在高并发下性能下降很厉害,文件锁的方式也是)

先将商品库存如队列